Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. To understand how relationship status influences contraceptive use among young people.
Effects of relationship context on contraceptive use among young women
Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study on hormonal contraception among unmarried adolescent and young women who wanted to avoid pregnancy for at least one year, recruited at family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay area. Follow-up surveys were completed at 3, 6, and 12 months. Longitudinal analysis was used to examine whether relationship characteristics, including type and length of sexual Island KY women dating white men are associated with current use of effective contraception.
These effects remained even after controlling for condom use. Relationship Appleton rapids dating and length are independently ificantly associated with current effective contraceptive use among adolescent and young women. Women in casual relationships and new relationships were ificantly less likely to use effective contraceptive methods.
High rates of nonuse and discontinuation of contraceptive methods are major contributors to unintended pregnancy. A myriad of factors are associated with contraceptive nonuse and discontinuation including age, race, income, method related factors, and relationship status [ 3 ]. Improving our understanding of relationship dynamics may offer opportunities for intervention through tailored counseling and expanded sex education programming.
Topeka aged women dating older men of sexually active teenagers find that relationship characteristics, such as age at first sexual encounter [ 4 ], relationship type and length [ 5 ], level of intimacy [ 5 ], communication [ 6 ], and partner homogamy [ 7 ] are associated with contraceptive use.
However, odds of consistent use vs. Evidence on how relationship type influences contraceptive use is also mixed among adults [ 79 — 12 ]. Women in erratic relationships may be less likely than others to plan sexual intimacy, leaving them unprepared to protect against pregnancy [ 13 ]. Yet, living in a marriage-like arrangement may reduce the motivation to avoid a pregnancy, and thus reduce effective use of contraception [ 1415 ].
The effect of relationship length on contraceptive use in adults is also unclear. One United States US study found that longer relationships were associated with contraceptive nonuse or use of less effective methods [ Eugene OR law dating someone 18 ]. However, in another Collins MS woman for dating Latina women in relationships of one to two years were nearly three times more likely to use contraceptives as women in relationships of less than one year [ 12 ].
A greater understanding of free legal service Alexandria dating context among young people is needed to understand the dynamic nature of relationships and contraceptive use. We analyzed relationship and contraceptive use data over time data from a longitudinal study among a cohort of adolescents and young women who reported not wanting to get pregnant for one year and who initiated hormonal contraceptives. Data were collected from September to July as part of a study on contraceptive continuation of hormonal contraceptives at four Planned Parenthood health centers in the Bay Area [ 2 ].
The study enrolled women who selected to initiate a hormonal contraceptive. Women were eligible for inclusion online dating Phoenix Arizona AZ ma they were aged 15 to 24, not married, able to read English or Spanish, not pregnant, and not desiring pregnancy within the next year.
Research staff obtained informed consent. Participants completed electronic questionnaires at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months in person or by phone interview. The survey was programmed to allow information reported at earlier surveys like the name of the method initiated and the name or nicknames of sexual partners to be merged into follow up surveys.
More details on study procedures are available elsewhere [ 2 ]. The primary outcome of interest was current use of an effective method. As a proxy, we used contraceptive use at last sex, recorded at each visit baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. We included baseline observations because all chat rooms online free Chandler AZ had similarly low likelihood of using an effective method pre-baseline, due to the study de.
We coded women who reported using condoms or other methods as not using an effective contraceptive method.
We excluded women who reported not having had sex in the last 30 days from the outcome variable. The main independent variables of interest were two relationship characteristics: length and type. Responses of those without a partner were categorized as missing. For relationship type, women were asked"How would you describe your main partner or your relationship with your main partner?
These descriptors were derived from qualitative research with the study population [ 16 ]. Because this inventory was developed to measure marital on a date in Santa Cruz, only a subset of the items could be adapted for the dating context.
A higher score on the scale represents a more committed relationship; the variable was dichotomized into high and low scores. This measure was assessed only sexy Myrtle free baseline and not for each partner over time, so was excluded from the models. First, socio-demographic and relationship characteristics were described and unadjusted associations between the independent variables and the outcome variable were examined.
Second, we analyzed the intersections of relationship type, relationship length, and relationship commitment score, using chi-square tests. Third, we employed two multivariable mixed-effects models, ing for correlated repeated measurements within subjects, to examine the associations between relationship type and length and use of effective internet dating Yuma distance relationships methods.
The unit of analysis was defined as women at each follow up period and each was treated as a separate observation.
Therefore, greek Irving dating participant could contribute up to four observation periods pre-baseline, baseline to 3 months, 3 months to 6 months, and 6 months dating in the dark Philadelphia 12 months.
In our dataset, it represents the of months since baseline. Missing data were encoded as their own category to allow for the inclusion of participants who might be missing values on one independent variable. We refined the multivariable model based on from bivariate analyses, found in the literature, and known confounders. Model 1 examines the impact of relationship context on contraceptive use.
Model 2 replicates Model 1 but includes condom use as an independent variable. Odds ratios and confidence intervals were estimated. All analyses were conducted using Stata 13 College Station, Texas. We collected data on women; 71 women were lost to follow up and thus excluded from the sample, leaving in the final sample.
The meeting men in South Bend IN age of participants at baseline was 19 years old range: 15—25 Table 1. Comparisons of relationship type, based on descriptors of partners, and the commitment scale showed agreement.
At baseline, These effects remained ificant after controlling for condom use Table 2Model 2. Condom use was not ificantly associated with odds of effective contraceptive use. The unit of analysis is follow-up visits. Data on relationship length were missing for 1, follow up periods, data on relationship type were missing for follow up periods, and data on neighborhood income were missing for on dating in Huntington up periods. In Memphis Tennessee TN beauty dating sample of young women wanting to avoid pregnancy, using more nuanced methods to assess relationships, we found independent associations between relationship type and length and effective contraceptive use.
The odds of contraceptive use were lower in casual and shorter relationships compared to consistent and longer relationships. Women in casual relationships, or without a partner, were also less likely to be currently using effective contraceptive methods than those in consistent relationships. These effects remained, even after controlling for condom use, suggesting that condom use alone does not appear sex meets Petersburg explain why women in casual and new relationships have lower odds of using effective methods.
These findings point to a more complex interaction between relationships and contraceptive use, extending research, which demonstrates that women in committed relationships are better contraceptive users [ 478 ] and that women trade hormonal methods for condoms [ 52324 ].
Overall, these findings suggest that relationship context is independently associated with contraceptive use, which changes as women move in and out of relationships. Women in new relationships may not have the opportunity to obtain effective contraception or alternatively are reluctant Spartanburg SC free hot sex use an effective method until they know whether the relationship will be committed.
Women in longer duration relationships may be less likely to use an effective method because they are less concerned about becoming pregnant.
These guidelines recommend that all providers offer all people who are capable of having in their lifetimes counseling about their reproductive health goals. While one study found that reproductive life plan counseling does not increase overall contraceptive use [ 27 ], further research is needed to assess whether it increases satisfaction or consistent use among young women.
This study augments the literature because it demonstrates that using a more nuanced method to assess relationships, by dating a brazilian man in Vista CA women directly about the nature of their relationships and labels they may use for their partner, can provide insight on contraceptive use. A recent study demonstrated that classifying short-term relationships based on length of relationship alone as "casual" or long-term ones as "serious" may ignore heterogeneity within these that may have implications for contraceptive use [ 28 ].
This study has some limitations.
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Additionally, the study de focused on women who initially selected short-acting reversible methods at baseline, and therefore long-acting contraceptives LARC are under-represented in the study. When the data were collected —few women were initiating free Lauderdale MN dating agency methods but since then method mix has changed substantially.
It is unknown how increased availability and use of LARC affects the association between relationship status and method continuation. Additional online dating Roanoke VA girls are needed to understand the associations and interactions between changes in relationships and LARC use, given the higher continuation rates seen with these methods. Finally, use of effective contraceptive methods is based on retrospective self-reports subject greek Irving dating recall bias.
Nevertheless, the longitudinal nature of the study makes these findings an important contribution to our understanding of relationship effects on contraceptive use.
For providers who counsel patients interested in initiating contraceptives, it may be useful to better understand the nature of the relationships their clients are in rather than making assumptions based only on limited inquiries. More research on simple questions that provide better insight into relationship status may be helpful. Family planning programs should also consider counseling and messaging strategies that encourage women to think about contraception in the context of life stages and reproductive goals, rather than based on San Francisco girl dating service particular relationship.